In medicine, there are primarily two types of diabetes: type 1, which occurs in patients under 30 years of age and requires the implementation of treatment (insulin therapy), and type 2 – its causes should be seen in the unhygienic lifestyle and obesity of patients. In both cases, it is necessary to visit a diabetologist and arrange a proper diet. A patient diagnosed with diabetes should adapt his current eating habits to new circumstances, which will allow him to avoid many unpleasant consequences of the disease. What is the diabetes diet like and what can diabetics eat?
Caloric demand and distribution of macronutrients
A diagnosed diabetic should be under the constant care of a good doctor who will supervise the diet as soon as possible. Consultations with dietitians who work with diabetics are also helpful. Before arranging a menu, the patient’s caloric demand must be calculated. This result will vary depending on the subject’s weight, age and lifestyle. What’s more, it will be the starting value when composing a diet. Particularly in the case of type 2 diabetes, where the goal of treatment is to help the patient lose weight. A patient with diabetes should also be informed by a doctor about the percentage distribution of macronutrients, i.e. proteins, carbohydrates and fats, in his diet. Every diabetes must be especially careful about fats and make sure that they constitute up to 25% of the daily requirement. You should also pay attention to the quality of protein and carbohydrates delivered to your body.
Healthy eating principles for diabetics and what can diabetics eat?
Diet for diabetics is arranged according to the same principles that are used by healthy people who care about their figure and well-being. Everyone with diabetes should eat five to even seven small meals a day at regular intervals. It is very important to eat at fixed times to prevent rapid drops in blood glucose levels. Meals should be carefully composed, and none of them contain valuable macronutrients. Before eating, patients with type 1 diabetes should calculate the carbohydrate exchangers per serving so that they can take the correct dose of insulin. It is very good practice to choose foods with a low glycemic index.
Food proper for diabetic
The second important indicator in diabetic nutrition is the glycemic load, which is based on the glycemic index of the dish and the portion size. IG classifies carbohydrates according to their absorption rate, while ŁG takes into account the carbohydrate content of the product. Food ingredients are divided into low-LG (<10), medium (11-19) and high (> 20) due to glycemic load. A simple formula is used to calculate the glycemic load: ŁG = IG × carbohydrates (g) / 100. These values can also be read from the tables. People with diabetes can occasionally reach for products with a high index, but should limit their number, and calculate carbohydrate exchangers before eating. In that case: what can diabetes eat without restrictions?
Safe products in the diabetic diet
A properly balanced diabetic diet should contain five portions of vegetables and fruit. The diabetic can eat vegetables with a low GI, such as: avocados, Brussels sprouts, zucchini, onions, chicory, string beans, mushrooms, sauerkraut, cucumbers, olives, celery, eggplant, green leaves, peppers, radish. Vegetables with diabetes have an important function because they provide the necessary vitamins and minerals, and what’s more, the fiber they contain slows down glucose absorption. Vitamins A, D, E, K dissolve in fats, so you should add olive oil, nuts or stones to the greens. Saltwater fish are also a good source of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Many people wonder what fruits they can eat with diabetes. Preferably those with low GI, especially: blackcurrant, rhubarb (without sweetening), blueberries, redcurrants, raspberries, strawberries, cherries, grapefruits, pears, tangerines, passion fruit, fresh apricots, peaches and apples. In a healthy diet, fruit should be consumed in the first part of the day – until 12 o’clock, accompanied by fat.